“THIS” can be categorized under adjectives if it is used to describe a noun. It is commonly placed before a noun to emphasize the person, place, or thing that is being referred to in the sentence. Look for example, at the sentence below:
This phone is mine.
The word “this” is used to modify the noun “phone.” It is used to make it clear to the audience that it is the noun being talked about.
a. being the person, thing, or idea that has been recently mentioned or is present or near in place, time, or thought
- He left early this morning.
b. used to indicate the thing that is closest to you or that is being shown to you
- Do you need this pen or that one?
- Definite Article
In some cases, the word “this” is regarded as a definite article when it is used to indicate a specific person or thing that the audience knows already. Take for example, the sentence:
Bring this gun with you.
In this sample sentence, the person being addressed knows exactly which object the speaker is referring to.
a. referring to a specific thing or situation just mentioned
- There was a number of fatalities resulting from this incident.
Sometimes, the word “this” can be classified as a pronoun if it is used to substitute a particular thing. For example, in the sentence:
This is the pilot speaking.
The word is used to replace a specific noun, which the listeners or readers (more likely) know already.
a. the person, thing, or idea that is present or near in place, time, or thought or that has just been mentioned
- Is this your purse?
b. the one nearer or more immediately under observation or discussion
- This is silver and that is aluminum.
In other cases, the word “this” is classified under the part of speech adverb, when it is used to describe an adjective, a verb, or another adverb. For instance, in the sample sentence:
He needs a container this big.
The word “this” is considered as an adverb that modifies the adjective “big.”
a. to the degree or extent that is suggested in the present situation
- We didn’t expect to wait this long.
b. to the degree or extent indicated by a gesture
- I need a screw this small.